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How to build a qualified sink? (attached: Interpretation of risk points of water-borne infections)

Washinghandsatthesink(HWS)isakeymeasuretopreventcross-infection.(HWS:facilitybetweenflowingwateranddrainagesystem).ThewidespreaduseofHWSandtheunreasonablelayout/designareassociatedwiththeriskofinfection.Althoughtherehavebeenwarningsintheliterature,understandingofrelatedhazardshasnotreceivedmuchattentionformorethan45years.UntiltheoutbreakofPseudomonasinNewborninBelfastin2012,peoplewereforcedtochangetheirmindset.Tominimizerisk,acomprehensiveapproachshouldbetaken,notjusttodetectthepresenceofP.aeruginosaorotherpathogensinthewaterflowingoutoftheHWSoutlet.Thereisevidencethatmostwaterwayinfectionshavenotbeendetected.  ThepurposeofthispaperistocriticallyexaminethedesignandaccompanyingrisksofHWS.   Washingtable:  Unlessotherwisestated,theprimaryandsolepurposeofHWSistopurifythehands.Thereisnostandardizeddesign.TheHWSconsistsofthreemaincomponents:thefaucet,thesinkandtheaccessories.ThepresenceoftheattachmentconvertsthesinkintoHWS.Otheressentialsincludeconnectingwatersystemsanddrains.  Howtobuildaqualifiedsink?  Faucet:  Thefunctionofthefaucetistorequirethehandtocontrolthetemperature/flow/sprayofthewaterwithoutbeingcontaminated.  TheScottishWaterSupplyRegulationsrequirethataccessoriesthattransportorconnecttopublicwaterpipesshouldnotcontaminatethewatersupplysystemandshouldhave“appropriatequalityandstandards”.Tomeetthisrequirement,itisbesttochooseaproductthatisapprovedbytheWaterRegulatoryAdvisoryProgram(WRAS).However,evenwiththeapprovalofWRAS,bacterialcontaminationintheproductionprocesscannotberuledout,soitisnecessarytoaskthemanufacturerhowtoreducethisrisk.

Washing hands at the sink (HWS) is a key measure to prevent cross-infection. (HWS: facility between flowing water and drainage system). The widespread use of HWS and the unreasonable layout/design are associated with the risk of infection. Although there have been warnings in the literature, understanding of related hazards has not received much attention for more than 45 years. Until the outbreak of Pseudomonas in Newborn in Belfast in 2012, people were forced to change their mindset. To minimize risk, a comprehensive approach should be taken, not just to detect the presence of P. aeruginosa or other pathogens in the water flowing out of the HWS outlet. There is evidence that most waterway infections have not been detected.

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the design and accompanying risks of HWS.

Washing table:

Unless otherwise stated, the primary and sole purpose of HWS is to purify the hands. There is no standardized design. The HWS consists of three main components: the faucet, the sink and the accessories. The presence of the attachment converts the sink into HWS. Other essentials include connecting water systems and drains.

How to build a qualified sink?


The function of the faucet is to require the hand to control the temperature/flow/spray of the water without being contaminated.

The Scottish Water Supply Regulations require that accessories that transport or connect to public water pipes should not contaminate the water supply system and should have “appropriate quality and standards”. To meet this requirement, it is best to choose a product that is approved by the Water Regulatory Advisory Program (WRAS). However, even with the approval of WRAS, bacterial contamination in the production process cannot be ruled out, so it is necessary to ask the manufacturer how to reduce this risk.